1 | /* -*- C++ -*- |
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2 | * |
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3 | * This file is a part of LEMON, a generic C++ optimization library |
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4 | * |
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5 | * Copyright (C) 2003-2008 |
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6 | * Egervary Jeno Kombinatorikus Optimalizalasi Kutatocsoport |
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7 | * (Egervary Research Group on Combinatorial Optimization, EGRES). |
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8 | * |
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9 | * Permission to use, modify and distribute this software is granted |
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10 | * provided that this copyright notice appears in all copies. For |
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11 | * precise terms see the accompanying LICENSE file. |
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12 | * |
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13 | * This software is provided "AS IS" with no warranty of any kind, |
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14 | * express or implied, and with no claim as to its suitability for any |
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15 | * purpose. |
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16 | * |
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17 | */ |
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18 | |
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19 | namespace lemon{ |
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20 | /*! |
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21 | |
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22 | \page maps-page Maps |
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23 | |
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24 | Maps play a central role in LEMON. As their name suggests, they map a |
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25 | certain range of \e keys to certain \e values. Each map has two |
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26 | <tt>typedef</tt>'s to determine the types of keys and values, like this: |
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27 | |
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28 | \code |
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29 | typedef Edge Key; |
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30 | typedef double Value; |
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31 | \endcode |
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32 | |
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33 | A map can be |
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34 | \e readable (\ref lemon::concepts::ReadMap "ReadMap", for short), |
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35 | \e writable (\ref lemon::concepts::WriteMap "WriteMap") or both |
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36 | (\ref lemon::concepts::ReadWriteMap "ReadWriteMap"). |
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37 | There also exists a special type of |
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38 | ReadWrite map called \ref lemon::concepts::ReferenceMap "reference map". |
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39 | In addition that you can |
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40 | read and write the values of a key, a reference map |
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41 | can also give you a reference to the |
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42 | value belonging to a key, so you have a direct access to the memory address |
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43 | where it is stored. |
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44 | |
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45 | Each graph structure in LEMON provides two standard map templates called |
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46 | \c EdgeMap and \c NodeMap. Both are reference maps and you can easily |
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47 | assign data to the nodes and to the edges of the graph. For example if you |
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48 | have a graph \c g defined as |
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49 | \code |
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50 | ListGraph g; |
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51 | \endcode |
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52 | and you want to assign a floating point value to each edge, you can do |
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53 | it like this. |
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54 | \code |
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55 | ListGraph::EdgeMap<double> length(g); |
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56 | \endcode |
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57 | Note that you must give the underlying graph to the constructor. |
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58 | |
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59 | The value of a readable map can be obtained by <tt>operator[]</tt>. |
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60 | \code |
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61 | d=length[e]; |
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62 | \endcode |
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63 | where \c e is an instance of \c ListGraph::Edge. |
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64 | (Or anything else |
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65 | that converts to \c ListGraph::Edge, like \c ListGraph::EdgeIt or |
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66 | \c ListGraph::OutEdgeIt etc.) |
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67 | |
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68 | There are two ways to assign a new value to a key |
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69 | |
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70 | - In case of a <em>reference map</em> <tt>operator[]</tt> |
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71 | gives you a reference to the |
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72 | value, thus you can use this. |
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73 | \code |
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74 | length[e]=3.5; |
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75 | \endcode |
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76 | - <em>Writable maps</em> have |
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77 | a member function \c set(Key,const Value &) |
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78 | for this purpose. |
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79 | \code |
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80 | length.set(e,3.5); |
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81 | \endcode |
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82 | |
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83 | The first case is more comfortable and if you store complex structures in your |
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84 | map, it might be more efficient. However, there are writable but |
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85 | not reference maps, so if you want to write a generic algorithm, you should |
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86 | insist on the second way. |
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87 | |
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88 | \section how-to-write-your-own-map How to Write Your Own Maps |
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89 | |
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90 | \subsection read-maps Readable Maps |
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91 | |
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92 | Readable maps are very frequently used as the input of an |
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93 | algorithm. For this purpose the most straightforward way is the use of the |
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94 | default maps provided by LEMON's graph structures. |
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95 | Very often however, it is more |
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96 | convenient and/or more efficient to write your own readable map. |
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97 | |
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98 | You can find some examples below. In these examples \c Graph is the |
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99 | type of the particular graph structure you use. |
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100 | |
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101 | |
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102 | This simple map assigns \f$\pi\f$ to each edge. |
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103 | |
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104 | \code |
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105 | struct MyMap |
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106 | { |
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107 | typedef double Value; |
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108 | typedef Graph::Edge Key; |
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109 | double operator[](Key e) const { return PI;} |
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110 | }; |
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111 | \endcode |
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112 | |
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113 | An alternative way to define maps is to use \c MapBase |
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114 | |
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115 | \code |
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116 | struct MyMap : public MapBase<Graph::Edge,double> |
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117 | { |
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118 | Value operator[](Key e) const { return PI;} |
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119 | }; |
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120 | \endcode |
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121 | |
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122 | Here is a bit more complex example. |
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123 | It provides a length function obtained |
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124 | from a base length function shifted by a potential difference. |
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125 | |
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126 | \code |
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127 | class ReducedLengthMap : public MapBase<Graph::Edge,double> |
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128 | { |
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129 | const Graph &g; |
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130 | const Graph::EdgeMap<double> &orig_len; |
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131 | const Graph::NodeMap<double> &pot; |
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132 | |
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133 | public: |
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134 | Value operator[](Key e) const { |
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135 | return orig_len[e]-(pot[g.target(e)]-pot[g.source(e)]); |
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136 | } |
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137 | |
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138 | ReducedLengthMap(const Graph &_g, |
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139 | const Graph::EdgeMap &_o, |
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140 | const Graph::NodeMap &_p) |
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141 | : g(_g), orig_len(_o), pot(_p) {}; |
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142 | }; |
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143 | \endcode |
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144 | |
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145 | Then, you can call e.g. Dijkstra algoritm on this map like this: |
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146 | \code |
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147 | ... |
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148 | ReducedLengthMap rm(g,len,pot); |
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149 | Dijkstra<Graph,ReducedLengthMap> dij(g,rm); |
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150 | dij.run(s); |
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151 | ... |
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152 | \endcode |
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153 | |
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154 | |
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155 | \subsection write-maps Writable Maps |
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156 | |
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157 | To be written... |
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158 | |
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159 | \subsection side-effect-maps Maps with Side Effect |
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160 | |
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161 | To be written... |
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162 | |
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163 | */ |
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164 | } |
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