1 | /* -*- mode: C++; indent-tabs-mode: nil; -*- |
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2 | * |
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3 | * This file is a part of LEMON, a generic C++ optimization library. |
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4 | * |
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5 | * Copyright (C) 2003-2009 |
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6 | * Egervary Jeno Kombinatorikus Optimalizalasi Kutatocsoport |
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7 | * (Egervary Research Group on Combinatorial Optimization, EGRES). |
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8 | * |
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9 | * Permission to use, modify and distribute this software is granted |
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10 | * provided that this copyright notice appears in all copies. For |
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11 | * precise terms see the accompanying LICENSE file. |
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12 | * |
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13 | * This software is provided "AS IS" with no warranty of any kind, |
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14 | * express or implied, and with no claim as to its suitability for any |
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15 | * purpose. |
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16 | * |
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17 | */ |
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18 | |
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19 | #ifndef HYPERCUBE_GRAPH_H |
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20 | #define HYPERCUBE_GRAPH_H |
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21 | |
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22 | #include <vector> |
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23 | #include <lemon/core.h> |
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24 | #include <lemon/assert.h> |
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25 | #include <lemon/bits/graph_extender.h> |
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26 | |
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27 | ///\ingroup graphs |
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28 | ///\file |
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29 | ///\brief HypercubeGraph class. |
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30 | |
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31 | namespace lemon { |
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32 | |
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33 | class HypercubeGraphBase { |
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34 | |
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35 | public: |
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36 | |
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37 | typedef HypercubeGraphBase Graph; |
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38 | |
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39 | class Node; |
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40 | class Edge; |
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41 | class Arc; |
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42 | |
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43 | public: |
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44 | |
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45 | HypercubeGraphBase() {} |
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46 | |
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47 | protected: |
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48 | |
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49 | void construct(int dim) { |
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50 | LEMON_ASSERT(dim >= 1, "The number of dimensions must be at least 1."); |
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51 | _dim = dim; |
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52 | _node_num = 1 << dim; |
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53 | _edge_num = dim * (1 << (dim-1)); |
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54 | } |
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55 | |
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56 | public: |
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57 | |
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58 | typedef True NodeNumTag; |
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59 | typedef True EdgeNumTag; |
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60 | typedef True ArcNumTag; |
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61 | |
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62 | int nodeNum() const { return _node_num; } |
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63 | int edgeNum() const { return _edge_num; } |
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64 | int arcNum() const { return 2 * _edge_num; } |
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65 | |
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66 | int maxNodeId() const { return _node_num - 1; } |
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67 | int maxEdgeId() const { return _edge_num - 1; } |
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68 | int maxArcId() const { return 2 * _edge_num - 1; } |
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69 | |
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70 | static Node nodeFromId(int id) { return Node(id); } |
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71 | static Edge edgeFromId(int id) { return Edge(id); } |
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72 | static Arc arcFromId(int id) { return Arc(id); } |
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73 | |
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74 | static int id(Node node) { return node._id; } |
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75 | static int id(Edge edge) { return edge._id; } |
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76 | static int id(Arc arc) { return arc._id; } |
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77 | |
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78 | Node u(Edge edge) const { |
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79 | int base = edge._id & ((1 << (_dim-1)) - 1); |
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80 | int k = edge._id >> (_dim-1); |
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81 | return ((base >> k) << (k+1)) | (base & ((1 << k) - 1)); |
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82 | } |
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83 | |
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84 | Node v(Edge edge) const { |
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85 | int base = edge._id & ((1 << (_dim-1)) - 1); |
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86 | int k = edge._id >> (_dim-1); |
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87 | return ((base >> k) << (k+1)) | (base & ((1 << k) - 1)) | (1 << k); |
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88 | } |
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89 | |
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90 | Node source(Arc arc) const { |
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91 | return (arc._id & 1) == 1 ? u(arc) : v(arc); |
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92 | } |
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93 | |
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94 | Node target(Arc arc) const { |
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95 | return (arc._id & 1) == 1 ? v(arc) : u(arc); |
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96 | } |
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97 | |
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98 | typedef True FindEdgeTag; |
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99 | typedef True FindArcTag; |
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100 | |
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101 | Edge findEdge(Node u, Node v, Edge prev = INVALID) const { |
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102 | if (prev != INVALID) return INVALID; |
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103 | int d = u._id ^ v._id; |
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104 | int k = 0; |
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105 | if (d == 0) return INVALID; |
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106 | for ( ; (d & 1) == 0; d >>= 1) ++k; |
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107 | if (d >> 1 != 0) return INVALID; |
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108 | return (k << (_dim-1)) | ((u._id >> (k+1)) << k) | |
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109 | (u._id & ((1 << k) - 1)); |
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110 | } |
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111 | |
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112 | Arc findArc(Node u, Node v, Arc prev = INVALID) const { |
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113 | Edge edge = findEdge(u, v, prev); |
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114 | if (edge == INVALID) return INVALID; |
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115 | int k = edge._id >> (_dim-1); |
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116 | return ((u._id >> k) & 1) == 1 ? edge._id << 1 : (edge._id << 1) | 1; |
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117 | } |
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118 | |
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119 | class Node { |
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120 | friend class HypercubeGraphBase; |
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121 | |
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122 | protected: |
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123 | int _id; |
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124 | Node(int id) : _id(id) {} |
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125 | public: |
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126 | Node() {} |
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127 | Node (Invalid) : _id(-1) {} |
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128 | bool operator==(const Node node) const {return _id == node._id;} |
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129 | bool operator!=(const Node node) const {return _id != node._id;} |
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130 | bool operator<(const Node node) const {return _id < node._id;} |
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131 | }; |
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132 | |
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133 | class Edge { |
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134 | friend class HypercubeGraphBase; |
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135 | friend class Arc; |
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136 | |
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137 | protected: |
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138 | int _id; |
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139 | |
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140 | Edge(int id) : _id(id) {} |
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141 | |
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142 | public: |
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143 | Edge() {} |
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144 | Edge (Invalid) : _id(-1) {} |
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145 | bool operator==(const Edge edge) const {return _id == edge._id;} |
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146 | bool operator!=(const Edge edge) const {return _id != edge._id;} |
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147 | bool operator<(const Edge edge) const {return _id < edge._id;} |
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148 | }; |
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149 | |
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150 | class Arc { |
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151 | friend class HypercubeGraphBase; |
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152 | |
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153 | protected: |
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154 | int _id; |
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155 | |
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156 | Arc(int id) : _id(id) {} |
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157 | |
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158 | public: |
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159 | Arc() {} |
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160 | Arc (Invalid) : _id(-1) {} |
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161 | operator Edge() const { return _id != -1 ? Edge(_id >> 1) : INVALID; } |
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162 | bool operator==(const Arc arc) const {return _id == arc._id;} |
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163 | bool operator!=(const Arc arc) const {return _id != arc._id;} |
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164 | bool operator<(const Arc arc) const {return _id < arc._id;} |
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165 | }; |
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166 | |
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167 | void first(Node& node) const { |
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168 | node._id = _node_num - 1; |
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169 | } |
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170 | |
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171 | static void next(Node& node) { |
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172 | --node._id; |
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173 | } |
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174 | |
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175 | void first(Edge& edge) const { |
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176 | edge._id = _edge_num - 1; |
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177 | } |
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178 | |
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179 | static void next(Edge& edge) { |
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180 | --edge._id; |
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181 | } |
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182 | |
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183 | void first(Arc& arc) const { |
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184 | arc._id = 2 * _edge_num - 1; |
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185 | } |
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186 | |
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187 | static void next(Arc& arc) { |
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188 | --arc._id; |
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189 | } |
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190 | |
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191 | void firstInc(Edge& edge, bool& dir, const Node& node) const { |
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192 | edge._id = node._id >> 1; |
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193 | dir = (node._id & 1) == 0; |
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194 | } |
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195 | |
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196 | void nextInc(Edge& edge, bool& dir) const { |
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197 | Node n = dir ? u(edge) : v(edge); |
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198 | int k = (edge._id >> (_dim-1)) + 1; |
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199 | if (k < _dim) { |
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200 | edge._id = (k << (_dim-1)) | |
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201 | ((n._id >> (k+1)) << k) | (n._id & ((1 << k) - 1)); |
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202 | dir = ((n._id >> k) & 1) == 0; |
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203 | } else { |
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204 | edge._id = -1; |
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205 | dir = true; |
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206 | } |
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207 | } |
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208 | |
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209 | void firstOut(Arc& arc, const Node& node) const { |
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210 | arc._id = ((node._id >> 1) << 1) | (~node._id & 1); |
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211 | } |
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212 | |
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213 | void nextOut(Arc& arc) const { |
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214 | Node n = (arc._id & 1) == 1 ? u(arc) : v(arc); |
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215 | int k = (arc._id >> _dim) + 1; |
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216 | if (k < _dim) { |
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217 | arc._id = (k << (_dim-1)) | |
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218 | ((n._id >> (k+1)) << k) | (n._id & ((1 << k) - 1)); |
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219 | arc._id = (arc._id << 1) | (~(n._id >> k) & 1); |
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220 | } else { |
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221 | arc._id = -1; |
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222 | } |
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223 | } |
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224 | |
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225 | void firstIn(Arc& arc, const Node& node) const { |
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226 | arc._id = ((node._id >> 1) << 1) | (node._id & 1); |
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227 | } |
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228 | |
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229 | void nextIn(Arc& arc) const { |
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230 | Node n = (arc._id & 1) == 1 ? v(arc) : u(arc); |
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231 | int k = (arc._id >> _dim) + 1; |
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232 | if (k < _dim) { |
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233 | arc._id = (k << (_dim-1)) | |
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234 | ((n._id >> (k+1)) << k) | (n._id & ((1 << k) - 1)); |
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235 | arc._id = (arc._id << 1) | ((n._id >> k) & 1); |
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236 | } else { |
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237 | arc._id = -1; |
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238 | } |
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239 | } |
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240 | |
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241 | static bool direction(Arc arc) { |
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242 | return (arc._id & 1) == 1; |
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243 | } |
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244 | |
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245 | static Arc direct(Edge edge, bool dir) { |
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246 | return Arc((edge._id << 1) | (dir ? 1 : 0)); |
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247 | } |
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248 | |
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249 | int dimension() const { |
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250 | return _dim; |
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251 | } |
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252 | |
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253 | bool projection(Node node, int n) const { |
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254 | return static_cast<bool>(node._id & (1 << n)); |
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255 | } |
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256 | |
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257 | int dimension(Edge edge) const { |
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258 | return edge._id >> (_dim-1); |
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259 | } |
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260 | |
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261 | int dimension(Arc arc) const { |
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262 | return arc._id >> _dim; |
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263 | } |
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264 | |
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265 | static int index(Node node) { |
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266 | return node._id; |
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267 | } |
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268 | |
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269 | Node operator()(int ix) const { |
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270 | return Node(ix); |
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271 | } |
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272 | |
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273 | private: |
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274 | int _dim; |
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275 | int _node_num, _edge_num; |
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276 | }; |
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277 | |
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278 | |
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279 | typedef GraphExtender<HypercubeGraphBase> ExtendedHypercubeGraphBase; |
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280 | |
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281 | /// \ingroup graphs |
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282 | /// |
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283 | /// \brief Hypercube graph class |
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284 | /// |
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285 | /// HypercubeGraph implements a special graph type. The nodes of the |
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286 | /// graph are indexed with integers having at most \c dim binary digits. |
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287 | /// Two nodes are connected in the graph if and only if their indices |
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288 | /// differ only on one position in the binary form. |
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289 | /// This class is completely static and it needs constant memory space. |
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290 | /// Thus you can neither add nor delete nodes or edges, however |
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291 | /// the structure can be resized using resize(). |
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292 | /// |
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293 | /// This type fully conforms to the \ref concepts::Graph "Graph concept". |
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294 | /// Most of its member functions and nested classes are documented |
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295 | /// only in the concept class. |
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296 | /// |
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297 | /// This class provides constant time counting for nodes, edges and arcs. |
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298 | /// |
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299 | /// \note The type of the indices is chosen to \c int for efficiency |
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300 | /// reasons. Thus the maximum dimension of this implementation is 26 |
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301 | /// (assuming that the size of \c int is 32 bit). |
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302 | class HypercubeGraph : public ExtendedHypercubeGraphBase { |
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303 | typedef ExtendedHypercubeGraphBase Parent; |
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304 | |
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305 | public: |
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306 | |
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307 | /// \brief Constructs a hypercube graph with \c dim dimensions. |
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308 | /// |
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309 | /// Constructs a hypercube graph with \c dim dimensions. |
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310 | HypercubeGraph(int dim) { construct(dim); } |
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311 | |
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312 | /// \brief Resizes the graph |
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313 | /// |
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314 | /// This function resizes the graph. It fully destroys and |
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315 | /// rebuilds the structure, therefore the maps of the graph will be |
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316 | /// reallocated automatically and the previous values will be lost. |
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317 | void resize(int dim) { |
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318 | Parent::notifier(Arc()).clear(); |
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319 | Parent::notifier(Edge()).clear(); |
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320 | Parent::notifier(Node()).clear(); |
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321 | construct(dim); |
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322 | Parent::notifier(Node()).build(); |
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323 | Parent::notifier(Edge()).build(); |
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324 | Parent::notifier(Arc()).build(); |
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325 | } |
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326 | |
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327 | /// \brief The number of dimensions. |
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328 | /// |
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329 | /// Gives back the number of dimensions. |
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330 | int dimension() const { |
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331 | return Parent::dimension(); |
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332 | } |
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333 | |
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334 | /// \brief Returns \c true if the n'th bit of the node is one. |
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335 | /// |
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336 | /// Returns \c true if the n'th bit of the node is one. |
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337 | bool projection(Node node, int n) const { |
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338 | return Parent::projection(node, n); |
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339 | } |
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340 | |
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341 | /// \brief The dimension id of an edge. |
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342 | /// |
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343 | /// Gives back the dimension id of the given edge. |
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344 | /// It is in the range <tt>[0..dim-1]</tt>. |
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345 | int dimension(Edge edge) const { |
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346 | return Parent::dimension(edge); |
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347 | } |
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348 | |
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349 | /// \brief The dimension id of an arc. |
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350 | /// |
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351 | /// Gives back the dimension id of the given arc. |
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352 | /// It is in the range <tt>[0..dim-1]</tt>. |
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353 | int dimension(Arc arc) const { |
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354 | return Parent::dimension(arc); |
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355 | } |
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356 | |
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357 | /// \brief The index of a node. |
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358 | /// |
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359 | /// Gives back the index of the given node. |
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360 | /// The lower bits of the integer describes the node. |
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361 | static int index(Node node) { |
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362 | return Parent::index(node); |
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363 | } |
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364 | |
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365 | /// \brief Gives back a node by its index. |
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366 | /// |
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367 | /// Gives back a node by its index. |
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368 | Node operator()(int ix) const { |
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369 | return Parent::operator()(ix); |
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370 | } |
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371 | |
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372 | /// \brief Number of nodes. |
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373 | int nodeNum() const { return Parent::nodeNum(); } |
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374 | /// \brief Number of edges. |
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375 | int edgeNum() const { return Parent::edgeNum(); } |
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376 | /// \brief Number of arcs. |
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377 | int arcNum() const { return Parent::arcNum(); } |
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378 | |
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379 | /// \brief Linear combination map. |
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380 | /// |
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381 | /// This map makes possible to give back a linear combination |
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382 | /// for each node. It works like the \c std::accumulate function, |
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383 | /// so it accumulates the \c bf binary function with the \c fv first |
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384 | /// value. The map accumulates only on that positions (dimensions) |
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385 | /// where the index of the node is one. The values that have to be |
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386 | /// accumulated should be given by the \c begin and \c end iterators |
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387 | /// and the length of this range should be equal to the dimension |
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388 | /// number of the graph. |
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389 | /// |
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390 | ///\code |
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391 | /// const int DIM = 3; |
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392 | /// HypercubeGraph graph(DIM); |
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393 | /// dim2::Point<double> base[DIM]; |
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394 | /// for (int k = 0; k < DIM; ++k) { |
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395 | /// base[k].x = rnd(); |
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396 | /// base[k].y = rnd(); |
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397 | /// } |
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398 | /// HypercubeGraph::HyperMap<dim2::Point<double> > |
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399 | /// pos(graph, base, base + DIM, dim2::Point<double>(0.0, 0.0)); |
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400 | ///\endcode |
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401 | /// |
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402 | /// \see HypercubeGraph |
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403 | template <typename T, typename BF = std::plus<T> > |
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404 | class HyperMap { |
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405 | public: |
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406 | |
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407 | /// \brief The key type of the map |
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408 | typedef Node Key; |
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409 | /// \brief The value type of the map |
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410 | typedef T Value; |
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411 | |
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412 | /// \brief Constructor for HyperMap. |
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413 | /// |
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414 | /// Construct a HyperMap for the given graph. The values that have |
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415 | /// to be accumulated should be given by the \c begin and \c end |
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416 | /// iterators and the length of this range should be equal to the |
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417 | /// dimension number of the graph. |
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418 | /// |
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419 | /// This map accumulates the \c bf binary function with the \c fv |
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420 | /// first value on that positions (dimensions) where the index of |
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421 | /// the node is one. |
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422 | template <typename It> |
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423 | HyperMap(const Graph& graph, It begin, It end, |
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424 | T fv = 0, const BF& bf = BF()) |
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425 | : _graph(graph), _values(begin, end), _first_value(fv), _bin_func(bf) |
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426 | { |
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427 | LEMON_ASSERT(_values.size() == graph.dimension(), |
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428 | "Wrong size of range"); |
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429 | } |
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430 | |
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431 | /// \brief The partial accumulated value. |
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432 | /// |
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433 | /// Gives back the partial accumulated value. |
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434 | Value operator[](const Key& k) const { |
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435 | Value val = _first_value; |
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436 | int id = _graph.index(k); |
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437 | int n = 0; |
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438 | while (id != 0) { |
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439 | if (id & 1) { |
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440 | val = _bin_func(val, _values[n]); |
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441 | } |
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442 | id >>= 1; |
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443 | ++n; |
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444 | } |
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445 | return val; |
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446 | } |
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447 | |
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448 | private: |
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449 | const Graph& _graph; |
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450 | std::vector<T> _values; |
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451 | T _first_value; |
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452 | BF _bin_func; |
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453 | }; |
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454 | |
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455 | }; |
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456 | |
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457 | } |
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458 | |
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459 | #endif |
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