doc/groups.dox
author Peter Kovacs <kpeter@inf.elte.hu>
Thu, 18 Mar 2010 00:29:35 +0100
branch1.2
changeset 961 7af2ae7c1428
parent 956 141f9c0db4a3
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Trim the documentation (#359)
     1 /* -*- mode: C++; indent-tabs-mode: nil; -*-
     2  *
     3  * This file is a part of LEMON, a generic C++ optimization library.
     4  *
     5  * Copyright (C) 2003-2010
     6  * Egervary Jeno Kombinatorikus Optimalizalasi Kutatocsoport
     7  * (Egervary Research Group on Combinatorial Optimization, EGRES).
     8  *
     9  * Permission to use, modify and distribute this software is granted
    10  * provided that this copyright notice appears in all copies. For
    11  * precise terms see the accompanying LICENSE file.
    12  *
    13  * This software is provided "AS IS" with no warranty of any kind,
    14  * express or implied, and with no claim as to its suitability for any
    15  * purpose.
    16  *
    17  */
    18 
    19 namespace lemon {
    20 
    21 /**
    22 @defgroup datas Data Structures
    23 This group contains the several data structures implemented in LEMON.
    24 */
    25 
    26 /**
    27 @defgroup graphs Graph Structures
    28 @ingroup datas
    29 \brief Graph structures implemented in LEMON.
    30 
    31 The implementation of combinatorial algorithms heavily relies on
    32 efficient graph implementations. LEMON offers data structures which are
    33 planned to be easily used in an experimental phase of implementation studies,
    34 and thereafter the program code can be made efficient by small modifications.
    35 
    36 The most efficient implementation of diverse applications require the
    37 usage of different physical graph implementations. These differences
    38 appear in the size of graph we require to handle, memory or time usage
    39 limitations or in the set of operations through which the graph can be
    40 accessed.  LEMON provides several physical graph structures to meet
    41 the diverging requirements of the possible users.  In order to save on
    42 running time or on memory usage, some structures may fail to provide
    43 some graph features like arc/edge or node deletion.
    44 
    45 Alteration of standard containers need a very limited number of
    46 operations, these together satisfy the everyday requirements.
    47 In the case of graph structures, different operations are needed which do
    48 not alter the physical graph, but gives another view. If some nodes or
    49 arcs have to be hidden or the reverse oriented graph have to be used, then
    50 this is the case. It also may happen that in a flow implementation
    51 the residual graph can be accessed by another algorithm, or a node-set
    52 is to be shrunk for another algorithm.
    53 LEMON also provides a variety of graphs for these requirements called
    54 \ref graph_adaptors "graph adaptors". Adaptors cannot be used alone but only
    55 in conjunction with other graph representations.
    56 
    57 You are free to use the graph structure that fit your requirements
    58 the best, most graph algorithms and auxiliary data structures can be used
    59 with any graph structure.
    60 
    61 <b>See also:</b> \ref graph_concepts "Graph Structure Concepts".
    62 */
    63 
    64 /**
    65 @defgroup graph_adaptors Adaptor Classes for Graphs
    66 @ingroup graphs
    67 \brief Adaptor classes for digraphs and graphs
    68 
    69 This group contains several useful adaptor classes for digraphs and graphs.
    70 
    71 The main parts of LEMON are the different graph structures, generic
    72 graph algorithms, graph concepts, which couple them, and graph
    73 adaptors. While the previous notions are more or less clear, the
    74 latter one needs further explanation. Graph adaptors are graph classes
    75 which serve for considering graph structures in different ways.
    76 
    77 A short example makes this much clearer.  Suppose that we have an
    78 instance \c g of a directed graph type, say ListDigraph and an algorithm
    79 \code
    80 template <typename Digraph>
    81 int algorithm(const Digraph&);
    82 \endcode
    83 is needed to run on the reverse oriented graph.  It may be expensive
    84 (in time or in memory usage) to copy \c g with the reversed
    85 arcs.  In this case, an adaptor class is used, which (according
    86 to LEMON \ref concepts::Digraph "digraph concepts") works as a digraph.
    87 The adaptor uses the original digraph structure and digraph operations when
    88 methods of the reversed oriented graph are called.  This means that the adaptor
    89 have minor memory usage, and do not perform sophisticated algorithmic
    90 actions.  The purpose of it is to give a tool for the cases when a
    91 graph have to be used in a specific alteration.  If this alteration is
    92 obtained by a usual construction like filtering the node or the arc set or
    93 considering a new orientation, then an adaptor is worthwhile to use.
    94 To come back to the reverse oriented graph, in this situation
    95 \code
    96 template<typename Digraph> class ReverseDigraph;
    97 \endcode
    98 template class can be used. The code looks as follows
    99 \code
   100 ListDigraph g;
   101 ReverseDigraph<ListDigraph> rg(g);
   102 int result = algorithm(rg);
   103 \endcode
   104 During running the algorithm, the original digraph \c g is untouched.
   105 This techniques give rise to an elegant code, and based on stable
   106 graph adaptors, complex algorithms can be implemented easily.
   107 
   108 In flow, circulation and matching problems, the residual
   109 graph is of particular importance. Combining an adaptor implementing
   110 this with shortest path algorithms or minimum mean cycle algorithms,
   111 a range of weighted and cardinality optimization algorithms can be
   112 obtained. For other examples, the interested user is referred to the
   113 detailed documentation of particular adaptors.
   114 
   115 The behavior of graph adaptors can be very different. Some of them keep
   116 capabilities of the original graph while in other cases this would be
   117 meaningless. This means that the concepts that they meet depend
   118 on the graph adaptor, and the wrapped graph.
   119 For example, if an arc of a reversed digraph is deleted, this is carried
   120 out by deleting the corresponding arc of the original digraph, thus the
   121 adaptor modifies the original digraph.
   122 However in case of a residual digraph, this operation has no sense.
   123 
   124 Let us stand one more example here to simplify your work.
   125 ReverseDigraph has constructor
   126 \code
   127 ReverseDigraph(Digraph& digraph);
   128 \endcode
   129 This means that in a situation, when a <tt>const %ListDigraph&</tt>
   130 reference to a graph is given, then it have to be instantiated with
   131 <tt>Digraph=const %ListDigraph</tt>.
   132 \code
   133 int algorithm1(const ListDigraph& g) {
   134   ReverseDigraph<const ListDigraph> rg(g);
   135   return algorithm2(rg);
   136 }
   137 \endcode
   138 */
   139 
   140 /**
   141 @defgroup maps Maps
   142 @ingroup datas
   143 \brief Map structures implemented in LEMON.
   144 
   145 This group contains the map structures implemented in LEMON.
   146 
   147 LEMON provides several special purpose maps and map adaptors that e.g. combine
   148 new maps from existing ones.
   149 
   150 <b>See also:</b> \ref map_concepts "Map Concepts".
   151 */
   152 
   153 /**
   154 @defgroup graph_maps Graph Maps
   155 @ingroup maps
   156 \brief Special graph-related maps.
   157 
   158 This group contains maps that are specifically designed to assign
   159 values to the nodes and arcs/edges of graphs.
   160 
   161 If you are looking for the standard graph maps (\c NodeMap, \c ArcMap,
   162 \c EdgeMap), see the \ref graph_concepts "Graph Structure Concepts".
   163 */
   164 
   165 /**
   166 \defgroup map_adaptors Map Adaptors
   167 \ingroup maps
   168 \brief Tools to create new maps from existing ones
   169 
   170 This group contains map adaptors that are used to create "implicit"
   171 maps from other maps.
   172 
   173 Most of them are \ref concepts::ReadMap "read-only maps".
   174 They can make arithmetic and logical operations between one or two maps
   175 (negation, shifting, addition, multiplication, logical 'and', 'or',
   176 'not' etc.) or e.g. convert a map to another one of different Value type.
   177 
   178 The typical usage of this classes is passing implicit maps to
   179 algorithms.  If a function type algorithm is called then the function
   180 type map adaptors can be used comfortable. For example let's see the
   181 usage of map adaptors with the \c graphToEps() function.
   182 \code
   183   Color nodeColor(int deg) {
   184     if (deg >= 2) {
   185       return Color(0.5, 0.0, 0.5);
   186     } else if (deg == 1) {
   187       return Color(1.0, 0.5, 1.0);
   188     } else {
   189       return Color(0.0, 0.0, 0.0);
   190     }
   191   }
   192 
   193   Digraph::NodeMap<int> degree_map(graph);
   194 
   195   graphToEps(graph, "graph.eps")
   196     .coords(coords).scaleToA4().undirected()
   197     .nodeColors(composeMap(functorToMap(nodeColor), degree_map))
   198     .run();
   199 \endcode
   200 The \c functorToMap() function makes an \c int to \c Color map from the
   201 \c nodeColor() function. The \c composeMap() compose the \c degree_map
   202 and the previously created map. The composed map is a proper function to
   203 get the color of each node.
   204 
   205 The usage with class type algorithms is little bit harder. In this
   206 case the function type map adaptors can not be used, because the
   207 function map adaptors give back temporary objects.
   208 \code
   209   Digraph graph;
   210 
   211   typedef Digraph::ArcMap<double> DoubleArcMap;
   212   DoubleArcMap length(graph);
   213   DoubleArcMap speed(graph);
   214 
   215   typedef DivMap<DoubleArcMap, DoubleArcMap> TimeMap;
   216   TimeMap time(length, speed);
   217 
   218   Dijkstra<Digraph, TimeMap> dijkstra(graph, time);
   219   dijkstra.run(source, target);
   220 \endcode
   221 We have a length map and a maximum speed map on the arcs of a digraph.
   222 The minimum time to pass the arc can be calculated as the division of
   223 the two maps which can be done implicitly with the \c DivMap template
   224 class. We use the implicit minimum time map as the length map of the
   225 \c Dijkstra algorithm.
   226 */
   227 
   228 /**
   229 @defgroup paths Path Structures
   230 @ingroup datas
   231 \brief %Path structures implemented in LEMON.
   232 
   233 This group contains the path structures implemented in LEMON.
   234 
   235 LEMON provides flexible data structures to work with paths.
   236 All of them have similar interfaces and they can be copied easily with
   237 assignment operators and copy constructors. This makes it easy and
   238 efficient to have e.g. the Dijkstra algorithm to store its result in
   239 any kind of path structure.
   240 
   241 \sa \ref concepts::Path "Path concept"
   242 */
   243 
   244 /**
   245 @defgroup heaps Heap Structures
   246 @ingroup datas
   247 \brief %Heap structures implemented in LEMON.
   248 
   249 This group contains the heap structures implemented in LEMON.
   250 
   251 LEMON provides several heap classes. They are efficient implementations
   252 of the abstract data type \e priority \e queue. They store items with
   253 specified values called \e priorities in such a way that finding and
   254 removing the item with minimum priority are efficient.
   255 The basic operations are adding and erasing items, changing the priority
   256 of an item, etc.
   257 
   258 Heaps are crucial in several algorithms, such as Dijkstra and Prim.
   259 The heap implementations have the same interface, thus any of them can be
   260 used easily in such algorithms.
   261 
   262 \sa \ref concepts::Heap "Heap concept"
   263 */
   264 
   265 /**
   266 @defgroup matrices Matrices
   267 @ingroup datas
   268 \brief Two dimensional data storages implemented in LEMON.
   269 
   270 This group contains two dimensional data storages implemented in LEMON.
   271 */
   272 
   273 /**
   274 @defgroup auxdat Auxiliary Data Structures
   275 @ingroup datas
   276 \brief Auxiliary data structures implemented in LEMON.
   277 
   278 This group contains some data structures implemented in LEMON in
   279 order to make it easier to implement combinatorial algorithms.
   280 */
   281 
   282 /**
   283 @defgroup geomdat Geometric Data Structures
   284 @ingroup auxdat
   285 \brief Geometric data structures implemented in LEMON.
   286 
   287 This group contains geometric data structures implemented in LEMON.
   288 
   289  - \ref lemon::dim2::Point "dim2::Point" implements a two dimensional
   290    vector with the usual operations.
   291  - \ref lemon::dim2::Box "dim2::Box" can be used to determine the
   292    rectangular bounding box of a set of \ref lemon::dim2::Point
   293    "dim2::Point"'s.
   294 */
   295 
   296 /**
   297 @defgroup algs Algorithms
   298 \brief This group contains the several algorithms
   299 implemented in LEMON.
   300 
   301 This group contains the several algorithms
   302 implemented in LEMON.
   303 */
   304 
   305 /**
   306 @defgroup search Graph Search
   307 @ingroup algs
   308 \brief Common graph search algorithms.
   309 
   310 This group contains the common graph search algorithms, namely
   311 \e breadth-first \e search (BFS) and \e depth-first \e search (DFS)
   312 \ref clrs01algorithms.
   313 */
   314 
   315 /**
   316 @defgroup shortest_path Shortest Path Algorithms
   317 @ingroup algs
   318 \brief Algorithms for finding shortest paths.
   319 
   320 This group contains the algorithms for finding shortest paths in digraphs
   321 \ref clrs01algorithms.
   322 
   323  - \ref Dijkstra algorithm for finding shortest paths from a source node
   324    when all arc lengths are non-negative.
   325  - \ref BellmanFord "Bellman-Ford" algorithm for finding shortest paths
   326    from a source node when arc lenghts can be either positive or negative,
   327    but the digraph should not contain directed cycles with negative total
   328    length.
   329  - \ref Suurballe A successive shortest path algorithm for finding
   330    arc-disjoint paths between two nodes having minimum total length.
   331 */
   332 
   333 /**
   334 @defgroup spantree Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithms
   335 @ingroup algs
   336 \brief Algorithms for finding minimum cost spanning trees and arborescences.
   337 
   338 This group contains the algorithms for finding minimum cost spanning
   339 trees and arborescences \ref clrs01algorithms.
   340 */
   341 
   342 /**
   343 @defgroup max_flow Maximum Flow Algorithms
   344 @ingroup algs
   345 \brief Algorithms for finding maximum flows.
   346 
   347 This group contains the algorithms for finding maximum flows and
   348 feasible circulations \ref clrs01algorithms, \ref amo93networkflows.
   349 
   350 The \e maximum \e flow \e problem is to find a flow of maximum value between
   351 a single source and a single target. Formally, there is a \f$G=(V,A)\f$
   352 digraph, a \f$cap: A\rightarrow\mathbf{R}^+_0\f$ capacity function and
   353 \f$s, t \in V\f$ source and target nodes.
   354 A maximum flow is an \f$f: A\rightarrow\mathbf{R}^+_0\f$ solution of the
   355 following optimization problem.
   356 
   357 \f[ \max\sum_{sv\in A} f(sv) - \sum_{vs\in A} f(vs) \f]
   358 \f[ \sum_{uv\in A} f(uv) = \sum_{vu\in A} f(vu)
   359     \quad \forall u\in V\setminus\{s,t\} \f]
   360 \f[ 0 \leq f(uv) \leq cap(uv) \quad \forall uv\in A \f]
   361 
   362 \ref Preflow is an efficient implementation of Goldberg-Tarjan's
   363 preflow push-relabel algorithm \ref goldberg88newapproach for finding
   364 maximum flows. It also provides functions to query the minimum cut,
   365 which is the dual problem of maximum flow.
   366 
   367 \ref Circulation is a preflow push-relabel algorithm implemented directly
   368 for finding feasible circulations, which is a somewhat different problem,
   369 but it is strongly related to maximum flow.
   370 For more information, see \ref Circulation.
   371 */
   372 
   373 /**
   374 @defgroup min_cost_flow_algs Minimum Cost Flow Algorithms
   375 @ingroup algs
   376 
   377 \brief Algorithms for finding minimum cost flows and circulations.
   378 
   379 This group contains the algorithms for finding minimum cost flows and
   380 circulations \ref amo93networkflows. For more information about this
   381 problem and its dual solution, see \ref min_cost_flow
   382 "Minimum Cost Flow Problem".
   383 
   384 LEMON contains several algorithms for this problem.
   385  - \ref NetworkSimplex Primal Network Simplex algorithm with various
   386    pivot strategies \ref dantzig63linearprog, \ref kellyoneill91netsimplex.
   387  - \ref CostScaling Cost Scaling algorithm based on push/augment and
   388    relabel operations \ref goldberg90approximation, \ref goldberg97efficient,
   389    \ref bunnagel98efficient.
   390  - \ref CapacityScaling Capacity Scaling algorithm based on the successive
   391    shortest path method \ref edmondskarp72theoretical.
   392  - \ref CycleCanceling Cycle-Canceling algorithms, two of which are
   393    strongly polynomial \ref klein67primal, \ref goldberg89cyclecanceling.
   394 
   395 In general NetworkSimplex is the most efficient implementation,
   396 but in special cases other algorithms could be faster.
   397 For example, if the total supply and/or capacities are rather small,
   398 CapacityScaling is usually the fastest algorithm (without effective scaling).
   399 */
   400 
   401 /**
   402 @defgroup min_cut Minimum Cut Algorithms
   403 @ingroup algs
   404 
   405 \brief Algorithms for finding minimum cut in graphs.
   406 
   407 This group contains the algorithms for finding minimum cut in graphs.
   408 
   409 The \e minimum \e cut \e problem is to find a non-empty and non-complete
   410 \f$X\f$ subset of the nodes with minimum overall capacity on
   411 outgoing arcs. Formally, there is a \f$G=(V,A)\f$ digraph, a
   412 \f$cap: A\rightarrow\mathbf{R}^+_0\f$ capacity function. The minimum
   413 cut is the \f$X\f$ solution of the next optimization problem:
   414 
   415 \f[ \min_{X \subset V, X\not\in \{\emptyset, V\}}
   416     \sum_{uv\in A: u\in X, v\not\in X}cap(uv) \f]
   417 
   418 LEMON contains several algorithms related to minimum cut problems:
   419 
   420 - \ref HaoOrlin "Hao-Orlin algorithm" for calculating minimum cut
   421   in directed graphs.
   422 - \ref GomoryHu "Gomory-Hu tree computation" for calculating
   423   all-pairs minimum cut in undirected graphs.
   424 
   425 If you want to find minimum cut just between two distinict nodes,
   426 see the \ref max_flow "maximum flow problem".
   427 */
   428 
   429 /**
   430 @defgroup min_mean_cycle Minimum Mean Cycle Algorithms
   431 @ingroup algs
   432 \brief Algorithms for finding minimum mean cycles.
   433 
   434 This group contains the algorithms for finding minimum mean cycles
   435 \ref clrs01algorithms, \ref amo93networkflows.
   436 
   437 The \e minimum \e mean \e cycle \e problem is to find a directed cycle
   438 of minimum mean length (cost) in a digraph.
   439 The mean length of a cycle is the average length of its arcs, i.e. the
   440 ratio between the total length of the cycle and the number of arcs on it.
   441 
   442 This problem has an important connection to \e conservative \e length
   443 \e functions, too. A length function on the arcs of a digraph is called
   444 conservative if and only if there is no directed cycle of negative total
   445 length. For an arbitrary length function, the negative of the minimum
   446 cycle mean is the smallest \f$\epsilon\f$ value so that increasing the
   447 arc lengths uniformly by \f$\epsilon\f$ results in a conservative length
   448 function.
   449 
   450 LEMON contains three algorithms for solving the minimum mean cycle problem:
   451 - \ref Karp "Karp"'s original algorithm \ref amo93networkflows,
   452   \ref dasdan98minmeancycle.
   453 - \ref HartmannOrlin "Hartmann-Orlin"'s algorithm, which is an improved
   454   version of Karp's algorithm \ref dasdan98minmeancycle.
   455 - \ref Howard "Howard"'s policy iteration algorithm
   456   \ref dasdan98minmeancycle.
   457 
   458 In practice, the Howard algorithm proved to be by far the most efficient
   459 one, though the best known theoretical bound on its running time is
   460 exponential.
   461 Both Karp and HartmannOrlin algorithms run in time O(ne) and use space
   462 O(n<sup>2</sup>+e), but the latter one is typically faster due to the
   463 applied early termination scheme.
   464 */
   465 
   466 /**
   467 @defgroup matching Matching Algorithms
   468 @ingroup algs
   469 \brief Algorithms for finding matchings in graphs and bipartite graphs.
   470 
   471 This group contains the algorithms for calculating
   472 matchings in graphs and bipartite graphs. The general matching problem is
   473 finding a subset of the edges for which each node has at most one incident
   474 edge.
   475 
   476 There are several different algorithms for calculate matchings in
   477 graphs.  The matching problems in bipartite graphs are generally
   478 easier than in general graphs. The goal of the matching optimization
   479 can be finding maximum cardinality, maximum weight or minimum cost
   480 matching. The search can be constrained to find perfect or
   481 maximum cardinality matching.
   482 
   483 The matching algorithms implemented in LEMON:
   484 - \ref MaxMatching Edmond's blossom shrinking algorithm for calculating
   485   maximum cardinality matching in general graphs.
   486 - \ref MaxWeightedMatching Edmond's blossom shrinking algorithm for calculating
   487   maximum weighted matching in general graphs.
   488 - \ref MaxWeightedPerfectMatching
   489   Edmond's blossom shrinking algorithm for calculating maximum weighted
   490   perfect matching in general graphs.
   491 - \ref MaxFractionalMatching Push-relabel algorithm for calculating
   492   maximum cardinality fractional matching in general graphs.
   493 - \ref MaxWeightedFractionalMatching Augmenting path algorithm for calculating
   494   maximum weighted fractional matching in general graphs.
   495 - \ref MaxWeightedPerfectFractionalMatching
   496   Augmenting path algorithm for calculating maximum weighted
   497   perfect fractional matching in general graphs.
   498 
   499 \image html matching.png
   500 \image latex matching.eps "Min Cost Perfect Matching" width=\textwidth
   501 */
   502 
   503 /**
   504 @defgroup graph_properties Connectivity and Other Graph Properties
   505 @ingroup algs
   506 \brief Algorithms for discovering the graph properties
   507 
   508 This group contains the algorithms for discovering the graph properties
   509 like connectivity, bipartiteness, euler property, simplicity etc.
   510 
   511 \image html connected_components.png
   512 \image latex connected_components.eps "Connected components" width=\textwidth
   513 */
   514 
   515 /**
   516 @defgroup planar Planarity Embedding and Drawing
   517 @ingroup algs
   518 \brief Algorithms for planarity checking, embedding and drawing
   519 
   520 This group contains the algorithms for planarity checking,
   521 embedding and drawing.
   522 
   523 \image html planar.png
   524 \image latex planar.eps "Plane graph" width=\textwidth
   525 */
   526 
   527 /**
   528 @defgroup auxalg Auxiliary Algorithms
   529 @ingroup algs
   530 \brief Auxiliary algorithms implemented in LEMON.
   531 
   532 This group contains some algorithms implemented in LEMON
   533 in order to make it easier to implement complex algorithms.
   534 */
   535 
   536 /**
   537 @defgroup gen_opt_group General Optimization Tools
   538 \brief This group contains some general optimization frameworks
   539 implemented in LEMON.
   540 
   541 This group contains some general optimization frameworks
   542 implemented in LEMON.
   543 */
   544 
   545 /**
   546 @defgroup lp_group LP and MIP Solvers
   547 @ingroup gen_opt_group
   548 \brief LP and MIP solver interfaces for LEMON.
   549 
   550 This group contains LP and MIP solver interfaces for LEMON.
   551 Various LP solvers could be used in the same manner with this
   552 high-level interface.
   553 
   554 The currently supported solvers are \ref glpk, \ref clp, \ref cbc,
   555 \ref cplex, \ref soplex.
   556 */
   557 
   558 /**
   559 @defgroup utils Tools and Utilities
   560 \brief Tools and utilities for programming in LEMON
   561 
   562 Tools and utilities for programming in LEMON.
   563 */
   564 
   565 /**
   566 @defgroup gutils Basic Graph Utilities
   567 @ingroup utils
   568 \brief Simple basic graph utilities.
   569 
   570 This group contains some simple basic graph utilities.
   571 */
   572 
   573 /**
   574 @defgroup misc Miscellaneous Tools
   575 @ingroup utils
   576 \brief Tools for development, debugging and testing.
   577 
   578 This group contains several useful tools for development,
   579 debugging and testing.
   580 */
   581 
   582 /**
   583 @defgroup timecount Time Measuring and Counting
   584 @ingroup misc
   585 \brief Simple tools for measuring the performance of algorithms.
   586 
   587 This group contains simple tools for measuring the performance
   588 of algorithms.
   589 */
   590 
   591 /**
   592 @defgroup exceptions Exceptions
   593 @ingroup utils
   594 \brief Exceptions defined in LEMON.
   595 
   596 This group contains the exceptions defined in LEMON.
   597 */
   598 
   599 /**
   600 @defgroup io_group Input-Output
   601 \brief Graph Input-Output methods
   602 
   603 This group contains the tools for importing and exporting graphs
   604 and graph related data. Now it supports the \ref lgf-format
   605 "LEMON Graph Format", the \c DIMACS format and the encapsulated
   606 postscript (EPS) format.
   607 */
   608 
   609 /**
   610 @defgroup lemon_io LEMON Graph Format
   611 @ingroup io_group
   612 \brief Reading and writing LEMON Graph Format.
   613 
   614 This group contains methods for reading and writing
   615 \ref lgf-format "LEMON Graph Format".
   616 */
   617 
   618 /**
   619 @defgroup eps_io Postscript Exporting
   620 @ingroup io_group
   621 \brief General \c EPS drawer and graph exporter
   622 
   623 This group contains general \c EPS drawing methods and special
   624 graph exporting tools.
   625 */
   626 
   627 /**
   628 @defgroup dimacs_group DIMACS Format
   629 @ingroup io_group
   630 \brief Read and write files in DIMACS format
   631 
   632 Tools to read a digraph from or write it to a file in DIMACS format data.
   633 */
   634 
   635 /**
   636 @defgroup nauty_group NAUTY Format
   637 @ingroup io_group
   638 \brief Read \e Nauty format
   639 
   640 Tool to read graphs from \e Nauty format data.
   641 */
   642 
   643 /**
   644 @defgroup concept Concepts
   645 \brief Skeleton classes and concept checking classes
   646 
   647 This group contains the data/algorithm skeletons and concept checking
   648 classes implemented in LEMON.
   649 
   650 The purpose of the classes in this group is fourfold.
   651 
   652 - These classes contain the documentations of the %concepts. In order
   653   to avoid document multiplications, an implementation of a concept
   654   simply refers to the corresponding concept class.
   655 
   656 - These classes declare every functions, <tt>typedef</tt>s etc. an
   657   implementation of the %concepts should provide, however completely
   658   without implementations and real data structures behind the
   659   interface. On the other hand they should provide nothing else. All
   660   the algorithms working on a data structure meeting a certain concept
   661   should compile with these classes. (Though it will not run properly,
   662   of course.) In this way it is easily to check if an algorithm
   663   doesn't use any extra feature of a certain implementation.
   664 
   665 - The concept descriptor classes also provide a <em>checker class</em>
   666   that makes it possible to check whether a certain implementation of a
   667   concept indeed provides all the required features.
   668 
   669 - Finally, They can serve as a skeleton of a new implementation of a concept.
   670 */
   671 
   672 /**
   673 @defgroup graph_concepts Graph Structure Concepts
   674 @ingroup concept
   675 \brief Skeleton and concept checking classes for graph structures
   676 
   677 This group contains the skeletons and concept checking classes of
   678 graph structures.
   679 */
   680 
   681 /**
   682 @defgroup map_concepts Map Concepts
   683 @ingroup concept
   684 \brief Skeleton and concept checking classes for maps
   685 
   686 This group contains the skeletons and concept checking classes of maps.
   687 */
   688 
   689 /**
   690 @defgroup tools Standalone Utility Applications
   691 
   692 Some utility applications are listed here.
   693 
   694 The standard compilation procedure (<tt>./configure;make</tt>) will compile
   695 them, as well.
   696 */
   697 
   698 /**
   699 \anchor demoprograms
   700 
   701 @defgroup demos Demo Programs
   702 
   703 Some demo programs are listed here. Their full source codes can be found in
   704 the \c demo subdirectory of the source tree.
   705 
   706 In order to compile them, use the <tt>make demo</tt> or the
   707 <tt>make check</tt> commands.
   708 */
   709 
   710 }