doc/groups.dox
author Alpar Juttner <alpar@cs.elte.hu>
Tue, 12 May 2009 12:09:55 +0100
branch1.1
changeset 844 c01a98ce01fd
parent 843 189760a7cdd0
parent 710 8b0df68370a4
child 1081 f1398882a928
permissions -rw-r--r--
Merge
     1 /* -*- mode: C++; indent-tabs-mode: nil; -*-
     2  *
     3  * This file is a part of LEMON, a generic C++ optimization library.
     4  *
     5  * Copyright (C) 2003-2009
     6  * Egervary Jeno Kombinatorikus Optimalizalasi Kutatocsoport
     7  * (Egervary Research Group on Combinatorial Optimization, EGRES).
     8  *
     9  * Permission to use, modify and distribute this software is granted
    10  * provided that this copyright notice appears in all copies. For
    11  * precise terms see the accompanying LICENSE file.
    12  *
    13  * This software is provided "AS IS" with no warranty of any kind,
    14  * express or implied, and with no claim as to its suitability for any
    15  * purpose.
    16  *
    17  */
    18 
    19 namespace lemon {
    20 
    21 /**
    22 @defgroup datas Data Structures
    23 This group contains the several data structures implemented in LEMON.
    24 */
    25 
    26 /**
    27 @defgroup graphs Graph Structures
    28 @ingroup datas
    29 \brief Graph structures implemented in LEMON.
    30 
    31 The implementation of combinatorial algorithms heavily relies on
    32 efficient graph implementations. LEMON offers data structures which are
    33 planned to be easily used in an experimental phase of implementation studies,
    34 and thereafter the program code can be made efficient by small modifications.
    35 
    36 The most efficient implementation of diverse applications require the
    37 usage of different physical graph implementations. These differences
    38 appear in the size of graph we require to handle, memory or time usage
    39 limitations or in the set of operations through which the graph can be
    40 accessed.  LEMON provides several physical graph structures to meet
    41 the diverging requirements of the possible users.  In order to save on
    42 running time or on memory usage, some structures may fail to provide
    43 some graph features like arc/edge or node deletion.
    44 
    45 Alteration of standard containers need a very limited number of
    46 operations, these together satisfy the everyday requirements.
    47 In the case of graph structures, different operations are needed which do
    48 not alter the physical graph, but gives another view. If some nodes or
    49 arcs have to be hidden or the reverse oriented graph have to be used, then
    50 this is the case. It also may happen that in a flow implementation
    51 the residual graph can be accessed by another algorithm, or a node-set
    52 is to be shrunk for another algorithm.
    53 LEMON also provides a variety of graphs for these requirements called
    54 \ref graph_adaptors "graph adaptors". Adaptors cannot be used alone but only
    55 in conjunction with other graph representations.
    56 
    57 You are free to use the graph structure that fit your requirements
    58 the best, most graph algorithms and auxiliary data structures can be used
    59 with any graph structure.
    60 
    61 <b>See also:</b> \ref graph_concepts "Graph Structure Concepts".
    62 */
    63 
    64 /**
    65 @defgroup graph_adaptors Adaptor Classes for Graphs
    66 @ingroup graphs
    67 \brief Adaptor classes for digraphs and graphs
    68 
    69 This group contains several useful adaptor classes for digraphs and graphs.
    70 
    71 The main parts of LEMON are the different graph structures, generic
    72 graph algorithms, graph concepts, which couple them, and graph
    73 adaptors. While the previous notions are more or less clear, the
    74 latter one needs further explanation. Graph adaptors are graph classes
    75 which serve for considering graph structures in different ways.
    76 
    77 A short example makes this much clearer.  Suppose that we have an
    78 instance \c g of a directed graph type, say ListDigraph and an algorithm
    79 \code
    80 template <typename Digraph>
    81 int algorithm(const Digraph&);
    82 \endcode
    83 is needed to run on the reverse oriented graph.  It may be expensive
    84 (in time or in memory usage) to copy \c g with the reversed
    85 arcs.  In this case, an adaptor class is used, which (according
    86 to LEMON \ref concepts::Digraph "digraph concepts") works as a digraph.
    87 The adaptor uses the original digraph structure and digraph operations when
    88 methods of the reversed oriented graph are called.  This means that the adaptor
    89 have minor memory usage, and do not perform sophisticated algorithmic
    90 actions.  The purpose of it is to give a tool for the cases when a
    91 graph have to be used in a specific alteration.  If this alteration is
    92 obtained by a usual construction like filtering the node or the arc set or
    93 considering a new orientation, then an adaptor is worthwhile to use.
    94 To come back to the reverse oriented graph, in this situation
    95 \code
    96 template<typename Digraph> class ReverseDigraph;
    97 \endcode
    98 template class can be used. The code looks as follows
    99 \code
   100 ListDigraph g;
   101 ReverseDigraph<ListDigraph> rg(g);
   102 int result = algorithm(rg);
   103 \endcode
   104 During running the algorithm, the original digraph \c g is untouched.
   105 This techniques give rise to an elegant code, and based on stable
   106 graph adaptors, complex algorithms can be implemented easily.
   107 
   108 In flow, circulation and matching problems, the residual
   109 graph is of particular importance. Combining an adaptor implementing
   110 this with shortest path algorithms or minimum mean cycle algorithms,
   111 a range of weighted and cardinality optimization algorithms can be
   112 obtained. For other examples, the interested user is referred to the
   113 detailed documentation of particular adaptors.
   114 
   115 The behavior of graph adaptors can be very different. Some of them keep
   116 capabilities of the original graph while in other cases this would be
   117 meaningless. This means that the concepts that they meet depend
   118 on the graph adaptor, and the wrapped graph.
   119 For example, if an arc of a reversed digraph is deleted, this is carried
   120 out by deleting the corresponding arc of the original digraph, thus the
   121 adaptor modifies the original digraph.
   122 However in case of a residual digraph, this operation has no sense.
   123 
   124 Let us stand one more example here to simplify your work.
   125 ReverseDigraph has constructor
   126 \code
   127 ReverseDigraph(Digraph& digraph);
   128 \endcode
   129 This means that in a situation, when a <tt>const %ListDigraph&</tt>
   130 reference to a graph is given, then it have to be instantiated with
   131 <tt>Digraph=const %ListDigraph</tt>.
   132 \code
   133 int algorithm1(const ListDigraph& g) {
   134   ReverseDigraph<const ListDigraph> rg(g);
   135   return algorithm2(rg);
   136 }
   137 \endcode
   138 */
   139 
   140 /**
   141 @defgroup maps Maps
   142 @ingroup datas
   143 \brief Map structures implemented in LEMON.
   144 
   145 This group contains the map structures implemented in LEMON.
   146 
   147 LEMON provides several special purpose maps and map adaptors that e.g. combine
   148 new maps from existing ones.
   149 
   150 <b>See also:</b> \ref map_concepts "Map Concepts".
   151 */
   152 
   153 /**
   154 @defgroup graph_maps Graph Maps
   155 @ingroup maps
   156 \brief Special graph-related maps.
   157 
   158 This group contains maps that are specifically designed to assign
   159 values to the nodes and arcs/edges of graphs.
   160 
   161 If you are looking for the standard graph maps (\c NodeMap, \c ArcMap,
   162 \c EdgeMap), see the \ref graph_concepts "Graph Structure Concepts".
   163 */
   164 
   165 /**
   166 \defgroup map_adaptors Map Adaptors
   167 \ingroup maps
   168 \brief Tools to create new maps from existing ones
   169 
   170 This group contains map adaptors that are used to create "implicit"
   171 maps from other maps.
   172 
   173 Most of them are \ref concepts::ReadMap "read-only maps".
   174 They can make arithmetic and logical operations between one or two maps
   175 (negation, shifting, addition, multiplication, logical 'and', 'or',
   176 'not' etc.) or e.g. convert a map to another one of different Value type.
   177 
   178 The typical usage of this classes is passing implicit maps to
   179 algorithms.  If a function type algorithm is called then the function
   180 type map adaptors can be used comfortable. For example let's see the
   181 usage of map adaptors with the \c graphToEps() function.
   182 \code
   183   Color nodeColor(int deg) {
   184     if (deg >= 2) {
   185       return Color(0.5, 0.0, 0.5);
   186     } else if (deg == 1) {
   187       return Color(1.0, 0.5, 1.0);
   188     } else {
   189       return Color(0.0, 0.0, 0.0);
   190     }
   191   }
   192 
   193   Digraph::NodeMap<int> degree_map(graph);
   194 
   195   graphToEps(graph, "graph.eps")
   196     .coords(coords).scaleToA4().undirected()
   197     .nodeColors(composeMap(functorToMap(nodeColor), degree_map))
   198     .run();
   199 \endcode
   200 The \c functorToMap() function makes an \c int to \c Color map from the
   201 \c nodeColor() function. The \c composeMap() compose the \c degree_map
   202 and the previously created map. The composed map is a proper function to
   203 get the color of each node.
   204 
   205 The usage with class type algorithms is little bit harder. In this
   206 case the function type map adaptors can not be used, because the
   207 function map adaptors give back temporary objects.
   208 \code
   209   Digraph graph;
   210 
   211   typedef Digraph::ArcMap<double> DoubleArcMap;
   212   DoubleArcMap length(graph);
   213   DoubleArcMap speed(graph);
   214 
   215   typedef DivMap<DoubleArcMap, DoubleArcMap> TimeMap;
   216   TimeMap time(length, speed);
   217 
   218   Dijkstra<Digraph, TimeMap> dijkstra(graph, time);
   219   dijkstra.run(source, target);
   220 \endcode
   221 We have a length map and a maximum speed map on the arcs of a digraph.
   222 The minimum time to pass the arc can be calculated as the division of
   223 the two maps which can be done implicitly with the \c DivMap template
   224 class. We use the implicit minimum time map as the length map of the
   225 \c Dijkstra algorithm.
   226 */
   227 
   228 /**
   229 @defgroup paths Path Structures
   230 @ingroup datas
   231 \brief %Path structures implemented in LEMON.
   232 
   233 This group contains the path structures implemented in LEMON.
   234 
   235 LEMON provides flexible data structures to work with paths.
   236 All of them have similar interfaces and they can be copied easily with
   237 assignment operators and copy constructors. This makes it easy and
   238 efficient to have e.g. the Dijkstra algorithm to store its result in
   239 any kind of path structure.
   240 
   241 \sa lemon::concepts::Path
   242 */
   243 
   244 /**
   245 @defgroup auxdat Auxiliary Data Structures
   246 @ingroup datas
   247 \brief Auxiliary data structures implemented in LEMON.
   248 
   249 This group contains some data structures implemented in LEMON in
   250 order to make it easier to implement combinatorial algorithms.
   251 */
   252 
   253 /**
   254 @defgroup algs Algorithms
   255 \brief This group contains the several algorithms
   256 implemented in LEMON.
   257 
   258 This group contains the several algorithms
   259 implemented in LEMON.
   260 */
   261 
   262 /**
   263 @defgroup search Graph Search
   264 @ingroup algs
   265 \brief Common graph search algorithms.
   266 
   267 This group contains the common graph search algorithms, namely
   268 \e breadth-first \e search (BFS) and \e depth-first \e search (DFS).
   269 */
   270 
   271 /**
   272 @defgroup shortest_path Shortest Path Algorithms
   273 @ingroup algs
   274 \brief Algorithms for finding shortest paths.
   275 
   276 This group contains the algorithms for finding shortest paths in digraphs.
   277 
   278  - \ref Dijkstra Dijkstra's algorithm for finding shortest paths from a 
   279    source node when all arc lengths are non-negative.
   280  - \ref Suurballe A successive shortest path algorithm for finding
   281    arc-disjoint paths between two nodes having minimum total length.
   282 */
   283 
   284 /**
   285 @defgroup max_flow Maximum Flow Algorithms
   286 @ingroup algs
   287 \brief Algorithms for finding maximum flows.
   288 
   289 This group contains the algorithms for finding maximum flows and
   290 feasible circulations.
   291 
   292 The \e maximum \e flow \e problem is to find a flow of maximum value between
   293 a single source and a single target. Formally, there is a \f$G=(V,A)\f$
   294 digraph, a \f$cap: A\rightarrow\mathbf{R}^+_0\f$ capacity function and
   295 \f$s, t \in V\f$ source and target nodes.
   296 A maximum flow is an \f$f: A\rightarrow\mathbf{R}^+_0\f$ solution of the
   297 following optimization problem.
   298 
   299 \f[ \max\sum_{sv\in A} f(sv) - \sum_{vs\in A} f(vs) \f]
   300 \f[ \sum_{uv\in A} f(uv) = \sum_{vu\in A} f(vu)
   301     \quad \forall u\in V\setminus\{s,t\} \f]
   302 \f[ 0 \leq f(uv) \leq cap(uv) \quad \forall uv\in A \f]
   303 
   304 \ref Preflow implements the preflow push-relabel algorithm of Goldberg and
   305 Tarjan for solving this problem. It also provides functions to query the
   306 minimum cut, which is the dual problem of maximum flow.
   307 
   308 
   309 \ref Circulation is a preflow push-relabel algorithm implemented directly 
   310 for finding feasible circulations, which is a somewhat different problem,
   311 but it is strongly related to maximum flow.
   312 For more information, see \ref Circulation.
   313 */
   314 
   315 /**
   316 @defgroup min_cost_flow_algs Minimum Cost Flow Algorithms
   317 @ingroup algs
   318 
   319 \brief Algorithms for finding minimum cost flows and circulations.
   320 
   321 This group contains the algorithms for finding minimum cost flows and
   322 circulations. For more information about this problem and its dual
   323 solution see \ref min_cost_flow "Minimum Cost Flow Problem".
   324 
   325 \ref NetworkSimplex is an efficient implementation of the primal Network
   326 Simplex algorithm for finding minimum cost flows. It also provides dual
   327 solution (node potentials), if an optimal flow is found.
   328 */
   329 
   330 /**
   331 @defgroup min_cut Minimum Cut Algorithms
   332 @ingroup algs
   333 
   334 \brief Algorithms for finding minimum cut in graphs.
   335 
   336 This group contains the algorithms for finding minimum cut in graphs.
   337 
   338 The \e minimum \e cut \e problem is to find a non-empty and non-complete
   339 \f$X\f$ subset of the nodes with minimum overall capacity on
   340 outgoing arcs. Formally, there is a \f$G=(V,A)\f$ digraph, a
   341 \f$cap: A\rightarrow\mathbf{R}^+_0\f$ capacity function. The minimum
   342 cut is the \f$X\f$ solution of the next optimization problem:
   343 
   344 \f[ \min_{X \subset V, X\not\in \{\emptyset, V\}}
   345     \sum_{uv\in A, u\in X, v\not\in X}cap(uv) \f]
   346 
   347 LEMON contains several algorithms related to minimum cut problems:
   348 
   349 - \ref HaoOrlin "Hao-Orlin algorithm" for calculating minimum cut
   350   in directed graphs.
   351 - \ref GomoryHu "Gomory-Hu tree computation" for calculating
   352   all-pairs minimum cut in undirected graphs.
   353 
   354 If you want to find minimum cut just between two distinict nodes,
   355 see the \ref max_flow "maximum flow problem".
   356 */
   357 
   358 /**
   359 @defgroup graph_properties Connectivity and Other Graph Properties
   360 @ingroup algs
   361 \brief Algorithms for discovering the graph properties
   362 
   363 This group contains the algorithms for discovering the graph properties
   364 like connectivity, bipartiteness, euler property, simplicity etc.
   365 
   366 \image html edge_biconnected_components.png
   367 \image latex edge_biconnected_components.eps "bi-edge-connected components" width=\textwidth
   368 */
   369 
   370 /**
   371 @defgroup matching Matching Algorithms
   372 @ingroup algs
   373 \brief Algorithms for finding matchings in graphs and bipartite graphs.
   374 
   375 This group contains the algorithms for calculating matchings in graphs.
   376 The general matching problem is finding a subset of the edges for which
   377 each node has at most one incident edge.
   378 
   379 There are several different algorithms for calculate matchings in
   380 graphs. The goal of the matching optimization
   381 can be finding maximum cardinality, maximum weight or minimum cost
   382 matching. The search can be constrained to find perfect or
   383 maximum cardinality matching.
   384 
   385 The matching algorithms implemented in LEMON:
   386 - \ref MaxMatching Edmond's blossom shrinking algorithm for calculating
   387   maximum cardinality matching in general graphs.
   388 - \ref MaxWeightedMatching Edmond's blossom shrinking algorithm for calculating
   389   maximum weighted matching in general graphs.
   390 - \ref MaxWeightedPerfectMatching
   391   Edmond's blossom shrinking algorithm for calculating maximum weighted
   392   perfect matching in general graphs.
   393 
   394 \image html bipartite_matching.png
   395 \image latex bipartite_matching.eps "Bipartite Matching" width=\textwidth
   396 */
   397 
   398 /**
   399 @defgroup spantree Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithms
   400 @ingroup algs
   401 \brief Algorithms for finding minimum cost spanning trees and arborescences.
   402 
   403 This group contains the algorithms for finding minimum cost spanning
   404 trees and arborescences.
   405 */
   406 
   407 /**
   408 @defgroup auxalg Auxiliary Algorithms
   409 @ingroup algs
   410 \brief Auxiliary algorithms implemented in LEMON.
   411 
   412 This group contains some algorithms implemented in LEMON
   413 in order to make it easier to implement complex algorithms.
   414 */
   415 
   416 /**
   417 @defgroup gen_opt_group General Optimization Tools
   418 \brief This group contains some general optimization frameworks
   419 implemented in LEMON.
   420 
   421 This group contains some general optimization frameworks
   422 implemented in LEMON.
   423 */
   424 
   425 /**
   426 @defgroup lp_group Lp and Mip Solvers
   427 @ingroup gen_opt_group
   428 \brief Lp and Mip solver interfaces for LEMON.
   429 
   430 This group contains Lp and Mip solver interfaces for LEMON. The
   431 various LP solvers could be used in the same manner with this
   432 interface.
   433 */
   434 
   435 /**
   436 @defgroup utils Tools and Utilities
   437 \brief Tools and utilities for programming in LEMON
   438 
   439 Tools and utilities for programming in LEMON.
   440 */
   441 
   442 /**
   443 @defgroup gutils Basic Graph Utilities
   444 @ingroup utils
   445 \brief Simple basic graph utilities.
   446 
   447 This group contains some simple basic graph utilities.
   448 */
   449 
   450 /**
   451 @defgroup misc Miscellaneous Tools
   452 @ingroup utils
   453 \brief Tools for development, debugging and testing.
   454 
   455 This group contains several useful tools for development,
   456 debugging and testing.
   457 */
   458 
   459 /**
   460 @defgroup timecount Time Measuring and Counting
   461 @ingroup misc
   462 \brief Simple tools for measuring the performance of algorithms.
   463 
   464 This group contains simple tools for measuring the performance
   465 of algorithms.
   466 */
   467 
   468 /**
   469 @defgroup exceptions Exceptions
   470 @ingroup utils
   471 \brief Exceptions defined in LEMON.
   472 
   473 This group contains the exceptions defined in LEMON.
   474 */
   475 
   476 /**
   477 @defgroup io_group Input-Output
   478 \brief Graph Input-Output methods
   479 
   480 This group contains the tools for importing and exporting graphs
   481 and graph related data. Now it supports the \ref lgf-format
   482 "LEMON Graph Format", the \c DIMACS format and the encapsulated
   483 postscript (EPS) format.
   484 */
   485 
   486 /**
   487 @defgroup lemon_io LEMON Graph Format
   488 @ingroup io_group
   489 \brief Reading and writing LEMON Graph Format.
   490 
   491 This group contains methods for reading and writing
   492 \ref lgf-format "LEMON Graph Format".
   493 */
   494 
   495 /**
   496 @defgroup eps_io Postscript Exporting
   497 @ingroup io_group
   498 \brief General \c EPS drawer and graph exporter
   499 
   500 This group contains general \c EPS drawing methods and special
   501 graph exporting tools.
   502 */
   503 
   504 /**
   505 @defgroup dimacs_group DIMACS format
   506 @ingroup io_group
   507 \brief Read and write files in DIMACS format
   508 
   509 Tools to read a digraph from or write it to a file in DIMACS format data.
   510 */
   511 
   512 /**
   513 @defgroup nauty_group NAUTY Format
   514 @ingroup io_group
   515 \brief Read \e Nauty format
   516 
   517 Tool to read graphs from \e Nauty format data.
   518 */
   519 
   520 /**
   521 @defgroup concept Concepts
   522 \brief Skeleton classes and concept checking classes
   523 
   524 This group contains the data/algorithm skeletons and concept checking
   525 classes implemented in LEMON.
   526 
   527 The purpose of the classes in this group is fourfold.
   528 
   529 - These classes contain the documentations of the %concepts. In order
   530   to avoid document multiplications, an implementation of a concept
   531   simply refers to the corresponding concept class.
   532 
   533 - These classes declare every functions, <tt>typedef</tt>s etc. an
   534   implementation of the %concepts should provide, however completely
   535   without implementations and real data structures behind the
   536   interface. On the other hand they should provide nothing else. All
   537   the algorithms working on a data structure meeting a certain concept
   538   should compile with these classes. (Though it will not run properly,
   539   of course.) In this way it is easily to check if an algorithm
   540   doesn't use any extra feature of a certain implementation.
   541 
   542 - The concept descriptor classes also provide a <em>checker class</em>
   543   that makes it possible to check whether a certain implementation of a
   544   concept indeed provides all the required features.
   545 
   546 - Finally, They can serve as a skeleton of a new implementation of a concept.
   547 */
   548 
   549 /**
   550 @defgroup graph_concepts Graph Structure Concepts
   551 @ingroup concept
   552 \brief Skeleton and concept checking classes for graph structures
   553 
   554 This group contains the skeletons and concept checking classes of LEMON's
   555 graph structures and helper classes used to implement these.
   556 */
   557 
   558 /**
   559 @defgroup map_concepts Map Concepts
   560 @ingroup concept
   561 \brief Skeleton and concept checking classes for maps
   562 
   563 This group contains the skeletons and concept checking classes of maps.
   564 */
   565 
   566 /**
   567 \anchor demoprograms
   568 
   569 @defgroup demos Demo Programs
   570 
   571 Some demo programs are listed here. Their full source codes can be found in
   572 the \c demo subdirectory of the source tree.
   573 
   574 In order to compile them, use the <tt>make demo</tt> or the
   575 <tt>make check</tt> commands.
   576 */
   577 
   578 /**
   579 @defgroup tools Standalone Utility Applications
   580 
   581 Some utility applications are listed here.
   582 
   583 The standard compilation procedure (<tt>./configure;make</tt>) will compile
   584 them, as well.
   585 */
   586 
   587 }