1 | /* -*- mode: C++; indent-tabs-mode: nil; -*- |
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2 | * |
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3 | * This file is a part of LEMON, a generic C++ optimization library. |
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4 | * |
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5 | * Copyright (C) 2003-2011 |
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6 | * Egervary Jeno Kombinatorikus Optimalizalasi Kutatocsoport |
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7 | * (Egervary Research Group on Combinatorial Optimization, EGRES). |
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8 | * |
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9 | * Permission to use, modify and distribute this software is granted |
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10 | * provided that this copyright notice appears in all copies. For |
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11 | * precise terms see the accompanying LICENSE file. |
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12 | * |
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13 | * This software is provided "AS IS" with no warranty of any kind, |
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14 | * express or implied, and with no claim as to its suitability for any |
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15 | * purpose. |
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16 | * |
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17 | */ |
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18 | |
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19 | namespace lemon { |
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20 | |
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21 | /** |
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22 | @defgroup datas Data Structures |
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23 | This group contains the several data structures implemented in LEMON. |
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24 | */ |
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25 | |
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26 | /** |
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27 | @defgroup graphs Graph Structures |
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28 | @ingroup datas |
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29 | \brief Graph structures implemented in LEMON. |
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30 | |
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31 | The implementation of combinatorial algorithms heavily relies on |
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32 | efficient graph implementations. LEMON offers data structures which are |
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33 | planned to be easily used in an experimental phase of implementation studies, |
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34 | and thereafter the program code can be made efficient by small modifications. |
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35 | |
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36 | The most efficient implementation of diverse applications require the |
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37 | usage of different physical graph implementations. These differences |
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38 | appear in the size of graph we require to handle, memory or time usage |
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39 | limitations or in the set of operations through which the graph can be |
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40 | accessed. LEMON provides several physical graph structures to meet |
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41 | the diverging requirements of the possible users. In order to save on |
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42 | running time or on memory usage, some structures may fail to provide |
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43 | some graph features like arc/edge or node deletion. |
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44 | |
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45 | Alteration of standard containers need a very limited number of |
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46 | operations, these together satisfy the everyday requirements. |
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47 | In the case of graph structures, different operations are needed which do |
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48 | not alter the physical graph, but gives another view. If some nodes or |
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49 | arcs have to be hidden or the reverse oriented graph have to be used, then |
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50 | this is the case. It also may happen that in a flow implementation |
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51 | the residual graph can be accessed by another algorithm, or a node-set |
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52 | is to be shrunk for another algorithm. |
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53 | LEMON also provides a variety of graphs for these requirements called |
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54 | \ref graph_adaptors "graph adaptors". Adaptors cannot be used alone but only |
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55 | in conjunction with other graph representations. |
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56 | |
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57 | You are free to use the graph structure that fit your requirements |
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58 | the best, most graph algorithms and auxiliary data structures can be used |
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59 | with any graph structure. |
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60 | |
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61 | <b>See also:</b> \ref graph_concepts "Graph Structure Concepts". |
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62 | */ |
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63 | |
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64 | /** |
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65 | @defgroup graph_adaptors Adaptor Classes for Graphs |
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66 | @ingroup graphs |
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67 | \brief Adaptor classes for digraphs and graphs |
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68 | |
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69 | This group contains several useful adaptor classes for digraphs and graphs. |
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70 | |
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71 | The main parts of LEMON are the different graph structures, generic |
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72 | graph algorithms, graph concepts, which couple them, and graph |
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73 | adaptors. While the previous notions are more or less clear, the |
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74 | latter one needs further explanation. Graph adaptors are graph classes |
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75 | which serve for considering graph structures in different ways. |
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76 | |
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77 | A short example makes this much clearer. Suppose that we have an |
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78 | instance \c g of a directed graph type, say ListDigraph and an algorithm |
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79 | \code |
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80 | template <typename Digraph> |
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81 | int algorithm(const Digraph&); |
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82 | \endcode |
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83 | is needed to run on the reverse oriented graph. It may be expensive |
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84 | (in time or in memory usage) to copy \c g with the reversed |
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85 | arcs. In this case, an adaptor class is used, which (according |
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86 | to LEMON \ref concepts::Digraph "digraph concepts") works as a digraph. |
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87 | The adaptor uses the original digraph structure and digraph operations when |
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88 | methods of the reversed oriented graph are called. This means that the adaptor |
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89 | have minor memory usage, and do not perform sophisticated algorithmic |
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90 | actions. The purpose of it is to give a tool for the cases when a |
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91 | graph have to be used in a specific alteration. If this alteration is |
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92 | obtained by a usual construction like filtering the node or the arc set or |
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93 | considering a new orientation, then an adaptor is worthwhile to use. |
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94 | To come back to the reverse oriented graph, in this situation |
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95 | \code |
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96 | template<typename Digraph> class ReverseDigraph; |
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97 | \endcode |
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98 | template class can be used. The code looks as follows |
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99 | \code |
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100 | ListDigraph g; |
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101 | ReverseDigraph<ListDigraph> rg(g); |
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102 | int result = algorithm(rg); |
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103 | \endcode |
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104 | During running the algorithm, the original digraph \c g is untouched. |
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105 | This techniques give rise to an elegant code, and based on stable |
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106 | graph adaptors, complex algorithms can be implemented easily. |
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107 | |
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108 | In flow, circulation and matching problems, the residual |
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109 | graph is of particular importance. Combining an adaptor implementing |
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110 | this with shortest path algorithms or minimum mean cycle algorithms, |
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111 | a range of weighted and cardinality optimization algorithms can be |
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112 | obtained. For other examples, the interested user is referred to the |
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113 | detailed documentation of particular adaptors. |
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114 | |
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115 | The behavior of graph adaptors can be very different. Some of them keep |
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116 | capabilities of the original graph while in other cases this would be |
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117 | meaningless. This means that the concepts that they meet depend |
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118 | on the graph adaptor, and the wrapped graph. |
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119 | For example, if an arc of a reversed digraph is deleted, this is carried |
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120 | out by deleting the corresponding arc of the original digraph, thus the |
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121 | adaptor modifies the original digraph. |
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122 | However in case of a residual digraph, this operation has no sense. |
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123 | |
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124 | Let us stand one more example here to simplify your work. |
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125 | ReverseDigraph has constructor |
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126 | \code |
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127 | ReverseDigraph(Digraph& digraph); |
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128 | \endcode |
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129 | This means that in a situation, when a <tt>const %ListDigraph&</tt> |
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130 | reference to a graph is given, then it have to be instantiated with |
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131 | <tt>Digraph=const %ListDigraph</tt>. |
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132 | \code |
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133 | int algorithm1(const ListDigraph& g) { |
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134 | ReverseDigraph<const ListDigraph> rg(g); |
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135 | return algorithm2(rg); |
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136 | } |
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137 | \endcode |
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138 | */ |
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139 | |
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140 | /** |
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141 | @defgroup maps Maps |
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142 | @ingroup datas |
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143 | \brief Map structures implemented in LEMON. |
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144 | |
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145 | This group contains the map structures implemented in LEMON. |
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146 | |
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147 | LEMON provides several special purpose maps and map adaptors that e.g. combine |
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148 | new maps from existing ones. |
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149 | |
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150 | <b>See also:</b> \ref map_concepts "Map Concepts". |
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151 | */ |
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152 | |
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153 | /** |
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154 | @defgroup graph_maps Graph Maps |
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155 | @ingroup maps |
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156 | \brief Special graph-related maps. |
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157 | |
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158 | This group contains maps that are specifically designed to assign |
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159 | values to the nodes and arcs/edges of graphs. |
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160 | |
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161 | If you are looking for the standard graph maps (\c NodeMap, \c ArcMap, |
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162 | \c EdgeMap), see the \ref graph_concepts "Graph Structure Concepts". |
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163 | */ |
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164 | |
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165 | /** |
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166 | \defgroup map_adaptors Map Adaptors |
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167 | \ingroup maps |
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168 | \brief Tools to create new maps from existing ones |
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169 | |
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170 | This group contains map adaptors that are used to create "implicit" |
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171 | maps from other maps. |
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172 | |
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173 | Most of them are \ref concepts::ReadMap "read-only maps". |
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174 | They can make arithmetic and logical operations between one or two maps |
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175 | (negation, shifting, addition, multiplication, logical 'and', 'or', |
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176 | 'not' etc.) or e.g. convert a map to another one of different Value type. |
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177 | |
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178 | The typical usage of this classes is passing implicit maps to |
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179 | algorithms. If a function type algorithm is called then the function |
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180 | type map adaptors can be used comfortable. For example let's see the |
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181 | usage of map adaptors with the \c graphToEps() function. |
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182 | \code |
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183 | Color nodeColor(int deg) { |
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184 | if (deg >= 2) { |
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185 | return Color(0.5, 0.0, 0.5); |
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186 | } else if (deg == 1) { |
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187 | return Color(1.0, 0.5, 1.0); |
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188 | } else { |
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189 | return Color(0.0, 0.0, 0.0); |
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190 | } |
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191 | } |
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192 | |
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193 | Digraph::NodeMap<int> degree_map(graph); |
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194 | |
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195 | graphToEps(graph, "graph.eps") |
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196 | .coords(coords).scaleToA4().undirected() |
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197 | .nodeColors(composeMap(functorToMap(nodeColor), degree_map)) |
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198 | .run(); |
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199 | \endcode |
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200 | The \c functorToMap() function makes an \c int to \c Color map from the |
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201 | \c nodeColor() function. The \c composeMap() compose the \c degree_map |
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202 | and the previously created map. The composed map is a proper function to |
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203 | get the color of each node. |
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204 | |
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205 | The usage with class type algorithms is little bit harder. In this |
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206 | case the function type map adaptors can not be used, because the |
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207 | function map adaptors give back temporary objects. |
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208 | \code |
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209 | Digraph graph; |
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210 | |
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211 | typedef Digraph::ArcMap<double> DoubleArcMap; |
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212 | DoubleArcMap length(graph); |
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213 | DoubleArcMap speed(graph); |
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214 | |
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215 | typedef DivMap<DoubleArcMap, DoubleArcMap> TimeMap; |
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216 | TimeMap time(length, speed); |
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217 | |
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218 | Dijkstra<Digraph, TimeMap> dijkstra(graph, time); |
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219 | dijkstra.run(source, target); |
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220 | \endcode |
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221 | We have a length map and a maximum speed map on the arcs of a digraph. |
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222 | The minimum time to pass the arc can be calculated as the division of |
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223 | the two maps which can be done implicitly with the \c DivMap template |
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224 | class. We use the implicit minimum time map as the length map of the |
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225 | \c Dijkstra algorithm. |
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226 | */ |
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227 | |
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228 | /** |
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229 | @defgroup paths Path Structures |
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230 | @ingroup datas |
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231 | \brief %Path structures implemented in LEMON. |
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232 | |
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233 | This group contains the path structures implemented in LEMON. |
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234 | |
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235 | LEMON provides flexible data structures to work with paths. |
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236 | All of them have similar interfaces and they can be copied easily with |
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237 | assignment operators and copy constructors. This makes it easy and |
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238 | efficient to have e.g. the Dijkstra algorithm to store its result in |
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239 | any kind of path structure. |
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240 | |
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241 | \sa lemon::concepts::Path |
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242 | */ |
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243 | |
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244 | /** |
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245 | @defgroup auxdat Auxiliary Data Structures |
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246 | @ingroup datas |
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247 | \brief Auxiliary data structures implemented in LEMON. |
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248 | |
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249 | This group contains some data structures implemented in LEMON in |
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250 | order to make it easier to implement combinatorial algorithms. |
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251 | */ |
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252 | |
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253 | /** |
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254 | @defgroup algs Algorithms |
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255 | \brief This group contains the several algorithms |
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256 | implemented in LEMON. |
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257 | |
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258 | This group contains the several algorithms |
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259 | implemented in LEMON. |
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260 | */ |
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261 | |
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262 | /** |
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263 | @defgroup search Graph Search |
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264 | @ingroup algs |
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265 | \brief Common graph search algorithms. |
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266 | |
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267 | This group contains the common graph search algorithms, namely |
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268 | \e breadth-first \e search (BFS) and \e depth-first \e search (DFS). |
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269 | */ |
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270 | |
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271 | /** |
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272 | @defgroup shortest_path Shortest Path Algorithms |
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273 | @ingroup algs |
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274 | \brief Algorithms for finding shortest paths. |
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275 | |
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276 | This group contains the algorithms for finding shortest paths in digraphs. |
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277 | |
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278 | - \ref Dijkstra Dijkstra's algorithm for finding shortest paths from a |
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279 | source node when all arc lengths are non-negative. |
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280 | - \ref Suurballe A successive shortest path algorithm for finding |
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281 | arc-disjoint paths between two nodes having minimum total length. |
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282 | */ |
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283 | |
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284 | /** |
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285 | @defgroup max_flow Maximum Flow Algorithms |
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286 | @ingroup algs |
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287 | \brief Algorithms for finding maximum flows. |
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288 | |
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289 | This group contains the algorithms for finding maximum flows and |
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290 | feasible circulations. |
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291 | |
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292 | The \e maximum \e flow \e problem is to find a flow of maximum value between |
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293 | a single source and a single target. Formally, there is a \f$G=(V,A)\f$ |
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294 | digraph, a \f$cap: A\rightarrow\mathbf{R}^+_0\f$ capacity function and |
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295 | \f$s, t \in V\f$ source and target nodes. |
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296 | A maximum flow is an \f$f: A\rightarrow\mathbf{R}^+_0\f$ solution of the |
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297 | following optimization problem. |
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298 | |
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299 | \f[ \max\sum_{sv\in A} f(sv) - \sum_{vs\in A} f(vs) \f] |
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300 | \f[ \sum_{uv\in A} f(uv) = \sum_{vu\in A} f(vu) |
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301 | \quad \forall u\in V\setminus\{s,t\} \f] |
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302 | \f[ 0 \leq f(uv) \leq cap(uv) \quad \forall uv\in A \f] |
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303 | |
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304 | \ref Preflow implements the preflow push-relabel algorithm of Goldberg and |
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305 | Tarjan for solving this problem. It also provides functions to query the |
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306 | minimum cut, which is the dual problem of maximum flow. |
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307 | |
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308 | |
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309 | \ref Circulation is a preflow push-relabel algorithm implemented directly |
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310 | for finding feasible circulations, which is a somewhat different problem, |
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311 | but it is strongly related to maximum flow. |
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312 | For more information, see \ref Circulation. |
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313 | */ |
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314 | |
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315 | /** |
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316 | @defgroup min_cost_flow_algs Minimum Cost Flow Algorithms |
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317 | @ingroup algs |
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318 | |
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319 | \brief Algorithms for finding minimum cost flows and circulations. |
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320 | |
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321 | This group contains the algorithms for finding minimum cost flows and |
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322 | circulations. For more information about this problem and its dual |
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323 | solution see \ref min_cost_flow "Minimum Cost Flow Problem". |
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324 | |
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325 | \ref NetworkSimplex is an efficient implementation of the primal Network |
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326 | Simplex algorithm for finding minimum cost flows. It also provides dual |
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327 | solution (node potentials), if an optimal flow is found. |
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328 | */ |
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329 | |
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330 | /** |
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331 | @defgroup min_cut Minimum Cut Algorithms |
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332 | @ingroup algs |
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333 | |
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334 | \brief Algorithms for finding minimum cut in graphs. |
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335 | |
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336 | This group contains the algorithms for finding minimum cut in graphs. |
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337 | |
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338 | The \e minimum \e cut \e problem is to find a non-empty and non-complete |
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339 | \f$X\f$ subset of the nodes with minimum overall capacity on |
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340 | outgoing arcs. Formally, there is a \f$G=(V,A)\f$ digraph, a |
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341 | \f$cap: A\rightarrow\mathbf{R}^+_0\f$ capacity function. The minimum |
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342 | cut is the \f$X\f$ solution of the next optimization problem: |
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343 | |
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344 | \f[ \min_{X \subset V, X\not\in \{\emptyset, V\}} |
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345 | \sum_{uv\in A, u\in X, v\not\in X}cap(uv) \f] |
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346 | |
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347 | LEMON contains several algorithms related to minimum cut problems: |
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348 | |
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349 | - \ref HaoOrlin "Hao-Orlin algorithm" for calculating minimum cut |
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350 | in directed graphs. |
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351 | - \ref GomoryHu "Gomory-Hu tree computation" for calculating |
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352 | all-pairs minimum cut in undirected graphs. |
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353 | |
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354 | If you want to find minimum cut just between two distinict nodes, |
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355 | see the \ref max_flow "maximum flow problem". |
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356 | */ |
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357 | |
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358 | /** |
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359 | @defgroup graph_properties Connectivity and Other Graph Properties |
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360 | @ingroup algs |
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361 | \brief Algorithms for discovering the graph properties |
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362 | |
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363 | This group contains the algorithms for discovering the graph properties |
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364 | like connectivity, bipartiteness, euler property, simplicity etc. |
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365 | |
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366 | \image html edge_biconnected_components.png |
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367 | \image latex edge_biconnected_components.eps "bi-edge-connected components" width=\textwidth |
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368 | */ |
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369 | |
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370 | /** |
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371 | @defgroup matching Matching Algorithms |
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372 | @ingroup algs |
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373 | \brief Algorithms for finding matchings in graphs and bipartite graphs. |
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374 | |
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375 | This group contains the algorithms for calculating matchings in graphs. |
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376 | The general matching problem is finding a subset of the edges for which |
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377 | each node has at most one incident edge. |
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378 | |
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379 | There are several different algorithms for calculate matchings in |
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380 | graphs. The goal of the matching optimization |
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381 | can be finding maximum cardinality, maximum weight or minimum cost |
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382 | matching. The search can be constrained to find perfect or |
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383 | maximum cardinality matching. |
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384 | |
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385 | The matching algorithms implemented in LEMON: |
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386 | - \ref MaxMatching Edmond's blossom shrinking algorithm for calculating |
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387 | maximum cardinality matching in general graphs. |
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388 | - \ref MaxWeightedMatching Edmond's blossom shrinking algorithm for calculating |
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389 | maximum weighted matching in general graphs. |
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390 | - \ref MaxWeightedPerfectMatching |
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391 | Edmond's blossom shrinking algorithm for calculating maximum weighted |
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392 | perfect matching in general graphs. |
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393 | |
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394 | \image html bipartite_matching.png |
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395 | \image latex bipartite_matching.eps "Bipartite Matching" width=\textwidth |
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396 | */ |
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397 | |
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398 | /** |
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399 | @defgroup spantree Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithms |
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400 | @ingroup algs |
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401 | \brief Algorithms for finding minimum cost spanning trees and arborescences. |
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402 | |
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403 | This group contains the algorithms for finding minimum cost spanning |
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404 | trees and arborescences. |
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405 | */ |
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406 | |
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407 | /** |
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408 | @defgroup auxalg Auxiliary Algorithms |
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409 | @ingroup algs |
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410 | \brief Auxiliary algorithms implemented in LEMON. |
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411 | |
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412 | This group contains some algorithms implemented in LEMON |
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413 | in order to make it easier to implement complex algorithms. |
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414 | */ |
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415 | |
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416 | /** |
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417 | @defgroup gen_opt_group General Optimization Tools |
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418 | \brief This group contains some general optimization frameworks |
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419 | implemented in LEMON. |
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420 | |
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421 | This group contains some general optimization frameworks |
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422 | implemented in LEMON. |
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423 | */ |
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424 | |
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425 | /** |
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426 | @defgroup lp_group Lp and Mip Solvers |
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427 | @ingroup gen_opt_group |
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428 | \brief Lp and Mip solver interfaces for LEMON. |
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429 | |
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430 | This group contains Lp and Mip solver interfaces for LEMON. The |
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431 | various LP solvers could be used in the same manner with this |
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432 | interface. |
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433 | */ |
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434 | |
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435 | /** |
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436 | @defgroup utils Tools and Utilities |
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437 | \brief Tools and utilities for programming in LEMON |
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438 | |
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439 | Tools and utilities for programming in LEMON. |
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440 | */ |
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441 | |
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442 | /** |
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443 | @defgroup gutils Basic Graph Utilities |
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444 | @ingroup utils |
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445 | \brief Simple basic graph utilities. |
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446 | |
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447 | This group contains some simple basic graph utilities. |
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448 | */ |
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449 | |
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450 | /** |
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451 | @defgroup misc Miscellaneous Tools |
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452 | @ingroup utils |
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453 | \brief Tools for development, debugging and testing. |
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454 | |
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455 | This group contains several useful tools for development, |
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456 | debugging and testing. |
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457 | */ |
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458 | |
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459 | /** |
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460 | @defgroup timecount Time Measuring and Counting |
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461 | @ingroup misc |
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462 | \brief Simple tools for measuring the performance of algorithms. |
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463 | |
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464 | This group contains simple tools for measuring the performance |
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465 | of algorithms. |
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466 | */ |
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467 | |
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468 | /** |
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469 | @defgroup exceptions Exceptions |
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470 | @ingroup utils |
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471 | \brief Exceptions defined in LEMON. |
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472 | |
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473 | This group contains the exceptions defined in LEMON. |
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474 | */ |
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475 | |
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476 | /** |
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477 | @defgroup io_group Input-Output |
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478 | \brief Graph Input-Output methods |
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479 | |
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480 | This group contains the tools for importing and exporting graphs |
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481 | and graph related data. Now it supports the \ref lgf-format |
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482 | "LEMON Graph Format", the \c DIMACS format and the encapsulated |
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483 | postscript (EPS) format. |
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484 | */ |
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485 | |
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486 | /** |
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487 | @defgroup lemon_io LEMON Graph Format |
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488 | @ingroup io_group |
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489 | \brief Reading and writing LEMON Graph Format. |
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490 | |
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491 | This group contains methods for reading and writing |
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492 | \ref lgf-format "LEMON Graph Format". |
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493 | */ |
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494 | |
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495 | /** |
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496 | @defgroup eps_io Postscript Exporting |
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497 | @ingroup io_group |
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498 | \brief General \c EPS drawer and graph exporter |
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499 | |
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500 | This group contains general \c EPS drawing methods and special |
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501 | graph exporting tools. |
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502 | */ |
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503 | |
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504 | /** |
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505 | @defgroup dimacs_group DIMACS format |
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506 | @ingroup io_group |
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507 | \brief Read and write files in DIMACS format |
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508 | |
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509 | Tools to read a digraph from or write it to a file in DIMACS format data. |
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510 | */ |
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511 | |
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512 | /** |
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513 | @defgroup nauty_group NAUTY Format |
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514 | @ingroup io_group |
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515 | \brief Read \e Nauty format |
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516 | |
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517 | Tool to read graphs from \e Nauty format data. |
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518 | */ |
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519 | |
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520 | /** |
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521 | @defgroup concept Concepts |
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522 | \brief Skeleton classes and concept checking classes |
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523 | |
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524 | This group contains the data/algorithm skeletons and concept checking |
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525 | classes implemented in LEMON. |
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526 | |
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527 | The purpose of the classes in this group is fourfold. |
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528 | |
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529 | - These classes contain the documentations of the %concepts. In order |
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530 | to avoid document multiplications, an implementation of a concept |
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531 | simply refers to the corresponding concept class. |
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532 | |
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533 | - These classes declare every functions, <tt>typedef</tt>s etc. an |
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534 | implementation of the %concepts should provide, however completely |
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535 | without implementations and real data structures behind the |
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536 | interface. On the other hand they should provide nothing else. All |
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537 | the algorithms working on a data structure meeting a certain concept |
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538 | should compile with these classes. (Though it will not run properly, |
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539 | of course.) In this way it is easily to check if an algorithm |
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540 | doesn't use any extra feature of a certain implementation. |
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541 | |
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542 | - The concept descriptor classes also provide a <em>checker class</em> |
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543 | that makes it possible to check whether a certain implementation of a |
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544 | concept indeed provides all the required features. |
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545 | |
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546 | - Finally, They can serve as a skeleton of a new implementation of a concept. |
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547 | */ |
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548 | |
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549 | /** |
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550 | @defgroup graph_concepts Graph Structure Concepts |
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551 | @ingroup concept |
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552 | \brief Skeleton and concept checking classes for graph structures |
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553 | |
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554 | This group contains the skeletons and concept checking classes of LEMON's |
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555 | graph structures and helper classes used to implement these. |
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556 | */ |
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557 | |
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558 | /** |
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559 | @defgroup map_concepts Map Concepts |
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560 | @ingroup concept |
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561 | \brief Skeleton and concept checking classes for maps |
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562 | |
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563 | This group contains the skeletons and concept checking classes of maps. |
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564 | */ |
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565 | |
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566 | /** |
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567 | \anchor demoprograms |
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568 | |
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569 | @defgroup demos Demo Programs |
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570 | |
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571 | Some demo programs are listed here. Their full source codes can be found in |
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572 | the \c demo subdirectory of the source tree. |
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573 | |
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574 | In order to compile them, use the <tt>make demo</tt> or the |
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575 | <tt>make check</tt> commands. |
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576 | */ |
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577 | |
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578 | /** |
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579 | @defgroup tools Standalone Utility Applications |
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580 | |
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581 | Some utility applications are listed here. |
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582 | |
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583 | The standard compilation procedure (<tt>./configure;make</tt>) will compile |
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584 | them, as well. |
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585 | */ |
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586 | |
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587 | } |
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